How is a sumo match won, and what are the various ways a wrestler can be declared victorious?

A sumo match, known as "bout" or "match" in Japanese, is won by forcing one's opponent out of the circular ring (dohyo) or by making any part of the opponent's body, other than the soles of their feet, touch the ground. There are several ways a sumo wrestler can be declared victorious:

Yorikiri (Frontal Force-out): This is the most common winning technique. A wrestler wins by pushing his opponent out of the ring.

Oshidashi (Frontal Push-Out): Similar to yorikiri, the wrestler wins by using a pushing force to drive the opponent out of the ring.

Tsukidashi (Frontal Thrust-Out): The winner uses a thrusting motion to force the opponent out of the ring.

Oshitaoshi (Frontal Push-down): The wrestler wins by pushing the opponent to the ground from a standing position.

Hatakikomi (Slap Down): The winner uses a well-timed slap to the opponent's upper body to make them lose balance and fall to the ground.

Uwatenage (Overarm Throw): The winner throws the opponent using an overarm grip, causing them to fall or touch the ground.

Uchigake (Inside Leg Trip): The winner trips the opponent's leg from the inside, causing them to lose balance and fall.

Sotogake (Outside Leg Trip): Similar to uchigake, but the trip is executed from the outside.

Yoritaoshi (Frontal Crush-out): The winner pushes the opponent forward and down, causing them to touch the ground.

Kimedashi (Arm Hold-Out): The winner immobilizes the opponent's arm and forces them out of the ring.

Okuridashi (Rear Push-Out): The winner drives the opponent out of the ring from behind.

Hikiotoshi (Hand Pull-Down): The winner pulls the opponent down by their arm.

Tsukiotoshi (Thrust-Down): The winner uses a thrusting motion to make the opponent lose balance and fall.

Okinoumi (Unseen Beneath Technique): This rare win is declared when both wrestlers fall out of the ring simultaneously, but the winner touches the ground first.

The match is officiated by referees and judges who closely observe the wrestlers' movements and actions. The first wrestler to achieve any of these victory conditions is declared the winner. If neither wrestler achieves victory within a time limit, a rematch may occur. These techniques blend physical strength, technique, and strategy, making sumo a fascinating and culturally rich sport.

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