What is the term for a climbing technique where a climber uses their entire body to push against the rock to ascend?

The climbing technique you're referring to is commonly known as "stemming" or "opposition climbing." Stemming involves using opposing forces between two adjacent surfaces to maintain balance and upward progress on a climb. It relies on the climber's ability to push against the rock, using both hands and/or feet on separate surfaces, to create a stable position.

When stemming, climbers position their limbs in a way that maximizes the contact area with the rock. For example, they may press their hands or feet against opposite walls or features such as corners, cracks, or chimneys. By pushing outward and upward with their limbs, climbers generate the necessary counterforce to remain in place and ascend.

Stemming is a versatile technique that can be used in various climbing situations. It is particularly useful when encountering wide cracks or chimneys where the climber can brace themselves against the opposing sides. By distributing their weight and utilizing the friction and compression between the surfaces, climbers can maintain stability and continue climbing upward.

The technique requires careful body positioning and balance. Climbers often need to adjust the angle and pressure of their limbs to find the optimal balance point. The precise footwork and hand placement are crucial for effective stemming, as it allows climbers to exert force in the right direction and maintain control.

Stemming can be employed in different climbing disciplines, including trad climbing, sport climbing, and even bouldering. It is an efficient technique for conserving energy, especially in situations where other holds may be scarce or insecure. Additionally, stemming can provide rest opportunities during a climb, as it allows climbers to find secure positions where they can recover and plan their next moves.

Overall, stemming is a valuable climbing technique that leverages the body's opposition forces to ascend and overcome challenging sections of a route. Mastery of this technique enhances a climber's repertoire of skills and contributes to their ability to tackle a variety of climbing challenges.

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